Manifesto 1 By Marx & Engels


[From the English edition of 1888, edited by Friedrich Engels]

A spectre is haunting Europe--the spectre of Communism.
All the Powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to
exorcise this spectre: Pope and Czar, Metternich and Guizot,
French Radicals and German police-spies.

Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as
Communistic by its opponents in power?  Where is the Opposition
that has not hurled back the branding reproach of Communism,
against the more advanced opposition parties, as well as against
its reactionary adversaries?

Two things result from this fact.

I.  Communism is already acknowledged by all European Powers
to be itself a Power.

II.  It is high time that Communists should openly, in the
face of the whole world, publish their views, their aims, their
tendencies, and meet this nursery tale of the Spectre of
Communism with a Manifesto of the party itself.

To this end, Communists of various nationalities have
assembled in Lo